MUSEUM

ATATÜRK'S PAVILION

The building which is located on the slopes of Soguksu and which is surrounded by pine trees was constructed by Konstantin Kabayanidis in 1890 as a summer resort. It reflects the Western and Renaissance influences and contains big and striking European symbols. The outside of the building is stone and the inside is in Baghdadi technique. The floors are covered with tiles of the time reflecting the same influence. The central heating and plumbing systems were progressive for the time. 
 
When Atatürk visited Trabzon for the first time on 15 September 1924 , he stayed in the mansion which is now redesigned as Trabzon Museum . During a short sightseeing tour to Soguksu, he saw the pavilion and liked it very much. During his second visit to Trabzon on 27 November 1930 , he was hosted in Turkish Nationalists Club building. Atatürk seemed to adore the pavilion. The people of Trabzon noticed this. In 1930, the building was registered by the Trabzon City Administrative Committee. The people of Trabzon bought it from the Ministry of Finance on 2 May 1931 and on 18 May 1931 they gave it to Atatürk as a present. After Atatürk's death in 1938, the pavilion was inherited by his sister Makbule Boysan. On 6 August 1942 , the pavilion was bought by the Trabzon Municipality again for TL 10.000 to be redesigned as a museum. It was reopened as a museum on 6 April 1943 , and it is known as the “Atatürk's pavillion” since then.
 
In June 1937, Atatürk visited Trabzon for a third time and stayed in this building for two nights. On the night of June 11, he took his historical decision to bequeath all of his property to the Turkish Nation that he loved very much. That night he prepared a list of his properties in the Soguksu pavilion and sent it to the Prime Minister. He said: “ The wealth of a man should be in his spiritual personality. Property and wealth make a heavy burden on me. By donating all these to my nation, I feel relieved.” For an unknown reason, Atatürk did not put this pavilion in Soguksu on his list of properties. Various opinions have been put forward, but there is no documentation to support any of them.

            ST.SOPHIA MUSEUM
The Ayasofya (Hagia Sophia) church, now used a museum, was built during the reign of Manuel Comnenos I, one of the kings of the Empire of Trabzon (1238-1263). Following Trabzon 's conquest by Sultan Mehmet, the Conqueror in 1461, the church was transformed into a mosque. For centuries, the Hagia Sophia church has attracted the attention of travellers and researchers visiting the city. Of these, Evliya Chelebi (1648), Pitton de Tournefort (1701), Hamilton (1836) Taxier (1864), Sakir Sevket of Trabzon (1878), and Lynch (1893) are well-known. 

It is known that the mosque, which had been in a state of ruin, was restored in 1864 as a result of insistent attempts by Riza Efendi of Bursa . It was used as a depot and hospital respectively during the First World War but was redesigned as a mosque again after the war. It was reopened as a museum in 1964 after the joint restoration project carried out by the Directorate of Foundations and Edinburgh University between 1958 and 1962.
 
The building is a very good example of late Byzantine architecture. It has a cruciform plan with a high central dome. It has a vestibule called a narthex, and three aisles. The central aisle has a pentagonal abscissa and the adjacent aisles end with semi-circular abscissas. The building has three porches on the north, west and south sides. The dome has twelve corners and is supported by four marble monolithic columns, arches and pendants. There are vaults around the central dome and the roof has different heights and is covered with tiles. In addition to the elements reflecting the traditions of Christian art, the influence of Islamic Seljuk art can also be seen in the stone reliefs. The panels on the north and west porches are decorated with interlocking geometric designs and the ornate niches on the west side have the characteristics of Seljuk-period stone carving.
 
The most impressive side of the building is the south side. Here, on a frieze, the creation of Adam and Eve is depicted in relief. The 1st scene depicts the creation of Adam and Eve. The 2nd scene depicts the lives of Adam and Eve in the gardens of Eden . The 3rd scene depicts Adam and Eve pick the Forbidden Apple in the Eden . The 4th scene depicts their dismissal from the Garden, and the 5th scene depicts the first murder.
 
On the keystone of the arch is a single-headed eagle motif that is the symbol of the Comnenos dynasty that ruled Trabzon for 257 years. A similar eagle design is found on the exterior of the main east abscissa. On this façade are the figures of mythical creatures such as griffons and centaurs, reliefs depicting doves, and panels decorated with stars and crescent designs in the centre, and medallions with floral designs. The floor below the main dome is covered with mosaic in opus-sectile technique made marbles of different colours. The frescoes, most of which depicting scenes from the Bible, are an important part of the decoration of the church.
 
The main scene on the dome is Jesus Christ, the pantacractor which reflects his divine side. Below this is a line of inscriptions and below this line of inscriptions is a frieze of angels. The 12 apostles are depicted on the pendentives. Various other scenes such as the birth of Christ, his baptism, his crucifixion and resurrection are also depicted here. On the outside of the eastern wall are some carvings showing boats and sailboats of various sizes which are considered to be dating from 1450 to 1850. We don't know for sure by whom and for what reason they were made. It is believed that they were carved by the people of the region who were sailors and who sailed a lot to get protection from the God.
 
The Tower :
 
The tower of Hagia Sophia Church was built in 1427. As time passed, the first floor of the tower that was used as a chapel was ruined, the vaulted roof collapsed and the paintings on it destroyed. However, the paintings on the chapel walls have been preserved up to the present day. Arch windows fill the centres of the north and south walls. Beginning in 1443, the depictions on the abscissa wall were completed in a very short time.

            THE CEVDET SUNAY MUSEUM
Cevdet Sunay was born in Atakoy village, 21 km . away from Çaykara district. Born in 1900, Mr. Sunay became the Chief of General Staff, a senator, and the fifth president of the Republic of Turkey . He died in 1982 and his house was restored and converted into a museum in 2001. 
  


Resimler: Erkan Kıral

The house is a typical two-storey village dwelling. The outer walls are made of cut stones and the inner parts are made of wood. The basement is used as a depot. The ground floor has two doors, one on the east side and one on the west side. There is a large living room in the entrance, and it is redesigned as an original traditional living space. On the walls are many photographs reflecting different periods of Mr. Sunay's life. The study contains Mr. Sunay's books, photos, other documents, and some furniture. The museum is worth seeing as one travels through the beautiful countryside of Ataköy on the way to the famous Sultan Murat Yayla (mountain pasture).

            THE SUMELA MONASTERY
The Sumela Monastery or as it is well-known, the Meryem Ana (Virgin Mary) Monastery stands on the foot of a steep cliff facing the Altindere valley in Maçka - a province of the city of Trabzon. The building is about 300 high from the valley and is an example to the tradition of building monasteries outside cities, in forests, in caves, and near sources of water. 

The monastery was founded in honour of the Virgin Mary and it is believed that its name comes from the word “melas” which means “black”. Although it may be said that the name derived from the name of “Karadaglar” ( Black Mountains ) on which it is built, the name can also be associated with the black colour of the Virgin Mary icon. The colour of the icon, which is so dark that it could be described as black, was one of the things that struck the eminent historian J. P. Failmerayer (1790-1 861) when he visited the Monastery in 1840.
 
It is possible that this could be the origin of the name. it is known that the 12th century Georgian Art produced a number of Virgin Mary icons known as Black Madonnas, and that these icons found their ways into a number of monasteries.
 
The main source of income of the monastery is an icon of Virgin Mary, which is reputed to be of great age and believed by many to possess miraculous properties. According to the legend, which is believed to have been invented in order to make people believe that it is very old and therefore increase the income of the church, the icon is the work of St. Luke, one of the disciples of Jesus Christ, and it went to Athens after St. Luke's death. However, in the reign of Theodosius (4th century), the icon desired to leave Athens , and one day it was brought by angels to its present place and placed upon a stone in the mountains around the city of Trabzon . At around the same time, Barnabas and Sophronios, two monks who travelled from Athens to Trabzon , happened to find the icon in this deserted spot, and they had the main rock grotto built here. Then, in the 6th century, it was restored and enlarged by general Belisarius at the behest of Emperor Justinianus.
 
According to another legend, Alexios III was sayed by Virgin Mary from a place built and donated rich foundations. Later on, Chrysobullos set out sturdy principles for these foundations in a decree. A verse consisting of five lines inscribed on a tablet dated 1360, which remained over the monastery gates until 1650, states that “Alexios III, founder of this place, is the emperor of the East and West ( Iberia )”. In 1361, Alexios witnessed an eclipse of the sun here at Sumela. The sun depicted on the coins minted by Alexios is considered to refer to this event. In the Deed of Foundation dated 1365, as well as references to the administration, land and income of the monastery there is a warning about the “danger of a Turkish invasion of Trabzon ” and the monks are urged “to be always on the alert”.
 
According to scientific investigations, the foundation of the monastery goes as back as to the 13rd century. Shortly, the Sumela Monastery was first referred to by this name in the Comnenos period which started in 1204. The monastery gained importance during the reign of Alexios III (1349-1390) of the Comnenian Empire of Trabzon . Its income was assured from the imperial funds.
 
Following the conquest of Trabzon and the surrounding area by the Ottomans, the sultans issued decrees protecting the ancient rights of the monastery are known to have been presented by Sultan Selim I (1512-1 520) a decree issued by Sultan Mehmet II, conqueror of Trabzon, acknowledging that the rights of the monastery existed. It is known that other sultans such as Bayazit II, Selim II, Murat II, Ibrahim, Mehmet IV Suleiman, the Magnificent, Mustafa and Ahmet III also issued decrees for the monastery.
 
During the 18th century, many parts of the monastery were restored and the walls were decorated with frescoes. In the 19th century, the monastery took on an impressive appearance with the addition of larger buildings. This was the monastery present form and it attracted many foreign travellers who mentioned it in their writings. Among them were Ghikas (1755), Stephane (1764), Hypsilantes (1775), and G. Palgrave (1826-1888). The monastery was seized by the Russians during the and 1918, and then, in 1923, it was abandoned.
 
The main sections of the Sumela Monastery are the rock church, a few chapels, kitchens, student rooms, a guesthouse, library and a sacred spring. This collection of buildings was built over a very large area. The large aqueduct at the entrance, which supplied water to the monastery, is constructed against the side of the cliff. The aqueduct has many arches and is now mostly restored.
 
A long and narrow stairway leads to the entrance of the monastery. Next to the entrance are guardrooms. Another stairway leads to the inner courtyard. On the left in front of the cave, which forms the main part of the monastery and which was turned into a church, are different facilities. The library is on the right side. Sixty-six of the mainly 17th and 18th century manuscripts had been previously catalogued and are now displayed in Ankara Museum . A further 1000 tetraevangeliums (the four gospels) adorned with miniatures and dating from Byzantine times are kept in the Ayasofya (Hagia Sophia) Museum in Istanbul. Also there are about 150 printed books. Of the valuables from the treasury of the church is a silver cross (stavrotek) presented by Manuel III, prince of Trabzon, a hand-written manuscript and a large number of documents which are now in the Museum of Byzantine Works in Athens. An icon of the monastery known as “Lady of the roses” is now in the National Gallery in Dublin . The silver candlesticks presented by Sultan Selim were stolen in 1877. Another icon is in a private collection in Oxford . A silver medallion on which the holy trinity is depicted and another ornate medallion dated 1438 together with an altar cloth (epitaphios) dated 1438 are in the Benaki Museum in Athens .
 
The large building with a balcony on the front port of the cliff was used as the monk cells and guestrooms. The building dates to 1860.
 
The influence of Turkish art can be seen in the design of the cupboards, niches and fireplaces in the rooms of the buildings surrounding the courtyard. Thus, these details in the rooms gave these small interior spaces a positively Turkish house air. The inner and outer walls of the rock church and the adjacent chapel are decorated with frescoes. Frescoes of the time of Alexios III can be seen on the inner wall of the rock church facing the courtyard. The frescoes of the chapel are dated to the early 18th century and they were painted at four levels in four different periods. The frescoes of the bottom band are better than the others in terms of colour and quality. The change in subject matter discernible in each layer is interesting. Inscriptions stating that these works were done in 1710 and 1732 were discovered. But frescoes dating from the times of Alexios III had been found on the wall of the rock church facing the courtyard. There, on each side of Alexios III were his sons, Manuel III and Andronikos. Unfortunately, no traces of these portraits remain today. Outside, parts of a huge apocalypse scene, of which only upper bands remain, can be seen on the rock face, and underneath its flaking plaster other scenes were found. A dragon and two mounted saints (Georgios and Demetrios) are seen on the wall of a small chapel. It was found that there are three other layers of paintings beneath this layer. Thus, on top of the bottom layer, the figure of an emperor wearing a diadem is depicted, and yet another figure of the same kind is depicted on top of that figure, and on top of this is a Transfiguration scene-Metamorphosis, the change of the look of Jesus Christ on Tabor mountain. In this case, in the older parts of the monastery where the plaster has not faked off completely there should be valuable paintings in the lower layers. With its pointed arches, the fountain which accumulates the sacred water is Turkish in character. 100 metre north of the monastery are chapels which are also carved into mountains having walls with frescoes. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism has been carrying out a major restoration project at Sumela since 1998, and so far al the damaged walls have been cleaned, restored and reinforced. The main building was covered with a roof and the frescoes in the main rock church have been strengthened. And finally, the path leading to the monastery was widened without giving any harm to the natural texture.

            MUSEUM OF TRABZON
The mansion which is reorganised as the Trabzon Museum was built by banker Kostaki Teophylaktos between 1889-1913 as a large family accommodation. The names of the architects are unknown. However, the common belief is that the architects were Italian, and materials used in the building were imported from Italy . Following Teophylaktos's bankruptcy in 1917, the mansion was sold to the Nemlioglu family. 

The building was used as one of the headquarters during the Independence War, and later on it was prepares for Atatürk's stay on his visit to the city in 1924. Atatürk, his wife and their travel companions stayed in this mansion between 15-17 September, 1924.
 
After the nationalization of the mansion which was led by Governor Ali Galip Bey and which cost TL 25.000, the building served as the Governors Hall between 1927-1931, and the Inspectors Headquarters between 1931-1937. Passing to the Ministry of Education, the mansion served for fifty years as a girls polytechnic school, and in 1987 it was turned to the Ministry of Culture to be reorganised as the City Museum .
 
Following the fifteen-year renovation works (1987-2001), the building was recreated and opened to the visitors as the Trabzon Museum with its archaeological and ethnographic exhibitions on April 22, 2001 .
 
With its all floors, except for the basement, being decorated with hand-drawn designs and its 1500 m2 size, the building still remains to be among the most beautiful examples of civil architecture. After being converted into a museum, the basement of the building was designed as the archaeology hall and founds that date from the early Bronze Age up to the late Ottoman period. Stone, clay, metal and glassware artefacts are on display in this department.
           
The archaeological display hall has a chronological arrangement and includes four separate sections: The first section that serves as the entrance houses a bronze Hermes statue which was found during Tabakhane Rescue Excavations in 1997 carried out by the Trabzon Museum Administration and which was found to be dating from 200 BC. This statue is among the most valuable pieces of the museum and is in standard human dimensions. Marble foundations that belong to a Roman temple excavated during the same excavations, Roman-period marble construction material and Ottoman-period marble elements are also on display in the same hall. In addition to these, the following are on display in the sections of the archaeological display hall:
 
The 1st section houses the Early Bronze Age, Urartian age, Iron Age, Hellenistic and Roman art works. The Asurian cylinder seal which is among the most valuable artefacts of the museum is also exhibited here. The 2nd section houses Hellenistic and Roman-period bronze, clay and glassware. The Roman coins are also displayed in this hall. The 3rd section houses Byzantine coins, icons and the Ottoman-period artefacts.
 
Compared to other floors, the ground floor holds more hand-drawn decorations. Some of the rooms on this floor still have the original silk wallpapers. Partly staying loyal to its original spaces, this floor was redesigned as a Konak (mansion) Display Section. This section has the following (from right to left): the living room, the study, the common living hall, the dining room and the game room. The present-day waiting hall and cafeteria are also serving on this floor. The then-entertainment hall is now used for musical performances, conferences and art exhibitions, and has an impressive baroque balcony.
           
The 1st floor that is rather simple in comparison with the ground floor is reorganised as the ethnographic section. Islamic art, armoury, handwritings, embroideries and costumes are displayed on this floor. Also the bedroom that was prepared for Atatürk and a section arranged for President Cevdet Sunay (the 5th president of Turkey ) are on this floor. The original furniture of the room in which Atatürk stayed in 1924 was bought from the second owner of the mansion – the Nemlioglu family – for display. The mezzanine is reorganised as the Trabzon Museum Administration and used as the administration.
 
The architecture and decorations used in this building reflect the 150-year-old baroque rococo tradition of Europe that became popular when the Ottoman Empire was slowly abandoning its own artistic and architectural characteristics. The unique use of these styles, which were preferred by palace architects, makes this mansion the only outstanding example of its kind in the city of Trabzon .
 
The baroque style is an art that adds a dynamic element, a depth of shape and structuralism to the artistic view. It reflects European art. The effect of the 19th century industrial revolution in changing the appearances of the buildings and the attempts to revive the old values was widespread among all Western societies; however, this had not been enough to keep the Western effects away from building. The examples of the palaces and mansions that were built with this baroque/rococo influence during the late Ottoman time and that are now called National Palaces could be listed chronologically as follows:
 
Aynali Konak Kasr, Dolmabahçe Palace (1842-1856), Ihlamur Kasri (1849-1855), Kuçuksu Kasri (1856-1857), Maslak Kasrs (1861-1865), and Yildiz Sale Kiosk (1st section, 1879-1880; 2nd section, 1889; 3rd section, 1898). The Kostaki Mansion , which is reorganised as the Trabzon Museum , is also a fine example of this rococo (little baroque) tradition. Just as it is true for all those examples given above, the architects and hand-drawing artists of the Kostaki Mansion are Italian. The impression of desire and eternity beyond limits are related with the baroque style. The imaginary scenes, impressive portraits inside the domes and on the walls serve that aim, while the art work becomes more of a decorative element.
 
As a remarkable effect of baroque/rococo tradition, the main hall's four columns in the Kostaki Mansion were completed in the marmorina (imitation marble) technique. These columns were worked in the late Roman-period Corinthian style. Marmorina was also used in plaster mouldings on the ceilings in the mansion.
 
In reality, the eclectic architectural style that was used in this mansion is what makes it so special. As part of this style, the Ionic Hymation decoration blended with lotus-palmet lines at that level where the walls reach the ceiling are worth seeing. The effect of neo-classicism created with Venus Adonis and late Roman figures of Eros on the ceiling of the hall is breathtaking.
 
The griffons (mythological being-winged lion) that meet you on both sides as pass through the entrance, the art-nevo style handcrafts displayed on the glass frames in the centre of the entertainment hall, the artwork that were placed in the medallions and that depict the city walls and the Nemlioglu bridge in Degirmendere area are worth seeing.
 
The splendid ceiling decoration of the entertainment hall (which probably was the fortune telling room) with the zodiac, and the medallions around the centre of the ceiling with Zeus and Hermes's figures are really masterpieces. The fish and bread scenes together with wine bottles that decorate the ceiling of the dining room together with the fantastic craftsmanship practised for the service window tell us that they are the products of some elite artists.
 
Stone tiles in the mosaic technique were used on the floors in stone spaces of the building. The walls of the ground floor and the wall side of the stairways leading to the administrative floor are coated with leather or sometimes with wood up to 1 metre high from the floor. While the outside of the building reflects Italian architecture, the woodwork inside the building signals Russian craftsmanship.
 
Local stone blocks cut very neatly decorate the façade of the mansion while granite was used in the basement and rose andesite was preferred for the other parts. There are one-metre-high spaces between the sections. The interior of the mansion was designed in the Baghdadi technique with dominant use of timber.
 
The eclectic architectural style used in the mansion is also visible in the roof. The octagonal tower on the north east corner of the roof is covered with fish skin-like lead covers. The octagonal tower on the North West corner of the mansion has a conic dome covered with fish skin-like lead covers. The roof of the rectangular room with oval windows on the north-east corner of the storey is a terrace. A glass roof covers the entertainment hall on the ground floor. The other sections are covered with a roof of traditional red tiles.
 
This eclecticism can also be seen on the facade of the building. The doors of the balconies on the façade also serve as the light openings. The sizes of the rectangular windows vary depending on the size of the rooms. The functions of the window shutters are twofold: depending on the frequency of use, some shut horizontally some shut vertically. When they are not used at all they are hidden in the wall. In order to increase the architectural aestheticism, the tower placed on the south-eastern corner of the mansion is decorated with a line of blue tiles above the windows. Like the glasses used in the inner spaces, these tiles were also imported from Italy . The tyke (the goddess, protector of the cities) statue at the entrance of the front garden makes it clear that the influence of neo-classicism did continue with the garden setting too.
 

Among the other elements of the garden is the decorative pool with its rather different fountain at the south-eastern corner. The garden houses pine and palm trees with a large variation of flowers.