AHİ EVREN DEDE MOSQUE

The construction date of Ahi Evren Dede Mosque which is located in Boztepe Neighbourhood overlooking Trabzon is not known. On the other hand, according to historic records a dervish lodge was built on the site of today's mosque and tomb by Ahi Evren during the role of Sultan Orhan, but there is not certain information about this lodge complex. Later Ahi Evren Dede Mosque was built on this site. It survived to the present since it was repaired by the efforts of Haci Hakki Baba in time of Sultan Abdülaziz in 1888 (1305 in Muslim Calendar).


             CARSI MOSQUE

Located in Kemeralti location in Çar·i Neighourhood, Çar·i Mosque was built in 1839 (1225 acc. to the Islamic Calendar) by Hazinedarzade Osman Pasha who served as a governor for a long time in Trabzon. 

Since the mosque was built on a sloping area, the place which remains under its last public hall on the northern side is reserved for shops. Çar·· Mosque, the biggest one in the city, is attractive for its stone works carved neatly. It is covered with a lead roof. On mouldings of windows and doors are borders in Baroque style.

Consisting of a main prayer hall and a last public section, the mosque is planned with an embankment wall below. Its last public section includes a portico with three parts which is placed among four domed columns.

             ERDOGDU BEY MOSQUE

Built by Erdogdu Bey, the governor of Trabzon in 1577, the mosque stands in the neighbourhood named as Erdogdu Bey. It had undergone a number of restorations which damaged its originality on a large scale.

Screened and elevated loges at the entrance of the last public section and the main prayer hall are wooden, and connected with each other from the top. Its prayer niche is vaulted in stalactite work, and each cusp is decorated with a rosette. On the upper side is an inscription which informs us that the mosque was repaired finally in 1899 (1317 in the Muslim Calendar). Its pulpit is wooden and decorated simply.


             GULBAHARHATUN MOSQUE

In the memory of Gülbahar Hatun, mother of Sultan Selim the Grim, it was constructed within a külliye near the Zagnos Bridge on the west of Orta Hisar. Only a mosque and a tomb survived to the present, all other structures within the complex such as soup kitchen, medrese, public bath and school were all mined. On the site of the former school, today's Gülbahar Hatun Primary School was constructed in 1899. Historic records reveal that the complex was put up in 1514 after the death of Gülbahar Hatun.

The mosque has no construction inscription and falls into the category of the Zaviyeli Mosques (built with a T shaped plan) of the early Ottoman Period. Its walls are of high quality workmanship. Windows, last public hall, arches and the minaret of the mosque were tiled with dark greyand yellowish white bricks. It is covered with a lead roof.

Prayer niche is built of marble. Its borders are simple whereas the top is decorated with plant motifs. The pentagonal niche ends with a vault designed in stalactite work. On each corner are two rosette motifs. Pulpit of the mosque is also simple which is built of marble.

Classical Period ornamentations of the mosque were mined in time, and the mosque was restored to its present appearance. Fountain in the courtyard was formerly topped with a dome which was replaced by a conical spire in recent repairs.

 

ISKENDER PASA MOSQUE

The originality of the mosque which underwent many repairs and was enlarged with additions at various times was damaged. The medrese standing in the courtyard was mined, and the graveyard to the west was removed, leaving only the grave of Iskender Pasha there.
           

The mosque features a high quality of stonework. Its minaret was built of bricks and coloured stones in a meshed style. The original plan of the mosque resembles that of the Ye·il Mosque (Green Mosque) in Iznik. Probably, the area with three parts on the front side was changed in repairs, and it was covered with a hip roof. The last public hall leads to a section at the centre of which is a dome supported by two columns to the south and is surrounded with side walls. This area was covered with vaults on the east and west. Main prayer hall is topped with a dome resting on pendentives.

 

The prayer niche and the pulpit are made of marble, and are decorated with the 19. century ornamentations in baroque style with large leafed curling branches and cartouches. Within the mosque are hand drawn ornamentations.

Inscription over the entrance gate of the mosque dates back to 1529 (936 in Islamic Calendar). There is also one more inscription informing the restoration in 1882 which gave the mosque its present appearance.


             ORTAHISAR MOSQUE

The structure which is formerly called as the Golden-headed Virgin Mary Church is supposed to have been built with a basilica plan within a monastery. Its construction date goes back to the year 914. However, present plan of the structure dates back to the 12. century. Historic records reveal that the structure has experienced six major restoration periods. The main plan is in the shape of a Greek cross. The structure with three naves has one apse that is round on the inside and polygonal on the outside. It has also one interior and one exterior narthex. Northem entrance is built in the 14. century. With its high and 12 cornered tambour, the central dome rests on pendentives.

The structure was ornamented elaborately since it was the main church and cathedral of the city once in a time. Mosaic ornamentation in opus sectile style is seen on some of its walls and ground.

After the conquest of T rabzon, it was converted into a mosque, and Fatih Medrese was built next to it. In the Ottoman Period, the main entrance to the mosque was moved to the north, a prayer niche was placed in the middle of the southern wall, and a pulpit and a minaret were added.

Prayer niche is wooden and ornamented richly. Borders with interlocking geometric motifs encircling the prayer niche, stalactite styled niche and rosettes resemble works of the Seljuks. And its pulpit built of walnut tree is a precious work of art.
 
The Orta Hisar Mosque was restored and decorated with ornamentations at various times, and all changes were infonned by inscriptions. Room on the east of the prayer niche was restored to a library in 1842, and an inscription was placed on its door.


             TAVANLI MOSQUE

Being one of the typical mosques with a roof in Trabzon, Tavanl· Mosque was built by the Nemlizade Family in 1874. With a large graveyard surrounded by a balustrade, the mosque includes last public section and a main prayer hall, and it was built with a rectangular plan. lts walls are thick and of superior workmanship. 
           
At the entrance of the main prayer hall, there is a screened and elevated loge built of wood. Lighting of the mosque is provided by the windows on all sides. Stone borders of prayer niche are decorated with trees and curled branches. lts pulpit is decorated simply. Ceiling of the main prayer hall is wooden and with a central design.

             YENI CUMA MOSQUE

It was dedicated to Saint Eugenios, the saviour and the protector of Trabzon . It is not known when the church was first built. According to researchers, the first construction was a basilica. There is also an inscription dating from 1291.

The present building was probably built with a cruciform plan in the 14. century. Without a narthex, the building has three naves and three apses today. The middle apse has a round shape on the inside whereas it is pentagonal on the outside. Other apses are in the shape of horseshoe on the inside and round on the outside. Central dome of the mosque stands on two cruciform pillars on the east and two Doric columns on the west with the support of pendentives. Side naves are roofed with vaults.

Eagle and dove reliefs (excluding the middle apse), fresco traces and remains of ground mosaics are observed in this building which was converted into a mosque after the conquest of Trabzon. It was expanded with a minaret and two entrances - one to the western side and other to the large apse. Its prayer niche is built of stone and reflects Baroque style whereas its pulpit is wooden and decorated simply. Screened and elevated loge of the mosque displays superior woodwork. Besides these additions, there are also very precious hand drawn ornamentations within the mosque. The writings on the pendentives belong to the famous calligrapher Hafiz Hasan Rifat. Writings and embroideries in other parts of the museum that are in use were all renewed.